What is inside a smartphone?
The processor is the brain of the smartphone, which processes all the information for the user. There are different types of processors namely single-core, dual-core, quad-core, Hexa core, and octa-core. As the number of cores in the processor increases the speed and performance of the smartphone also increases. When looking inside the smartphone, this is the main part for providing smooth performance. The processor mostly depends on the Operating System(i.e Android, IOS, Windows, etc) of the smartphone, because this only specifies, what action to be performed according to the user needs.
Nowadays, the smartphone consists of two cameras namely the Primary Camera and the Secondary camera(Selfie Camera). This camera uses a CMOS image sensor to capture light and then convert it to electric charge and processes it into electronic signals. When we press the capture button(in-camera application) in our smartphone, the scene is captured by the image sensor and this will be processed by the image signal processor(known as ISP) and after that, it will be saved in the destination folder. In the same way, the Video recording is done, but in this case, Video encoder is used.
The storage elements inside the smartphones include RAM and ROM. RAM is the Random Access Memory, which is used by the processor for instant data access. For example, if an application is opened in the smartphone and then after a while, if the home button is pressed and another application is opened, the previously opened application is stored in the RAM. When we once again go to that previous application, it will show what we did before closing that application(previously opened application). The ROM is the Read-Only Memory and it is used for storing various files like movies, games, music, apps, documents, etc. The storage of the device can also be extended by using the microSD card slot.
The display is the main part, in which the user interacts with the smartphone. The size of the display varies according to different smartphones. Nowadays, the smartphone’s display comes with 4K resolution, Quad HD, Full HD resolution for flagship devices, and HD resolution for mid-range devices. The brightness of the display varies with the type of display namely AMOLED, LCD, Retina display, etc. The AMOLED display provides more vibrant colors and good details.
There are various types of sensors present on the smartphone. They are the Light sensor, Proximity sensor, Gyro sensor, Hall Sensor, Heart Rate Sensor, Finger Print Sensor, etc. The Light sensor is used to control the brightness of the screen automatically. The Proximity sensor is used to turn off the display when there is a presence of the human ear(while voice calling). Both the light sensor and the proximity sensor present near the Earpiece speaker of the smartphone. The fingerprint sensor is used for security purpose and this is useful for detecting fingerprints. Heart rate sensor is used to measure the heart rate of the user.
There are two speakers present on the smartphone. One is the Earpiece speaker, which is used during voice calling and the other one is the Loud Speaker.
The smartphone runs with the help of the battery. There are different types of battery, which will vary according to the different specifications of the smartphone. There are four different types of battery technologies, they are Lithium-Ion, Lithium Polymer, Nickel Cadmium, Nickel Metal Hydride, and new lithium technology. The battery drain depends on the Processor and the Power Management Unit in the smartphone.
A small microphone is present at the bottom of the smartphone. This is used for voice calling, video calling, and audio recording.